Previous Lectures for this year's series included:
New Insights into the Developmental Period in the Middle Rio Grande Valley by Robin M, Cordero, MA
The Rio Grande Developmental Period (AD 500-1200) is generally defined as the period in which populations in the Rio Grande Valley transitioned from a seasonally mobile to a sedentary residential pattern, and from a hunter-gatherer based to an agriculturally based subsistence economy.Unlike their counterparts in the San Juan Basin, where residents lived in above-ground structures that often included ceremonial structures and storage rooms; Developmental Period residential sites have generally been defined as groupings of one to three pithouses with associated exterior storage pits, roasting pits, and hearths, and lacking ceremonial structures.Above ground structures are not seen until the Late Developmental Period (ca. AD 900-1200), and these are generally more common in the Northern Rio Grande (north of La Bajada Mesa) than in the Middle Rio Grande. Recent and past excavations by the Office of Contract Archeology, University of New Mexico, in the Lower Jemez River Valley have resulted in significant changes to our interpretations of the Developmental Period in the Middle Rio Grande area.These excavations have revealed the presence of a complex site structure that includes palisade walls, ceremonial structures, and a formalized site layout surrounding a plaza-like area.This talk will present the Office of Contract Archeologys recent research on these Developmental Period sites, and discuss some of the broader implications for interpretations of early Puebloan settlement in the Middle Rio Grande Valley.
Robin M. Cordero (BA, MA Anthropology, PhD candidate UNM) has 11 years experience in excavation, survey, analysis and reporting throughout northern California, and northern and central New Mexico.Mr. Cordero has been a Senior Archeologist with the Office of Contract Archeology, University of New Mexico since 2006, and has served as a Project Director, Field Director or Crew Chief on more than 25 survey and excavation projects throughout New Mexico.Mr. Cordero also is the resident zooarchaeologist and bioarchaeologist for OCA. His primary research interests are in bioarchaeology and zooarchaeology with emphases on the transition to agriculture and agricultural intensification, garden hunting and small game procurement, mortuary analysis and age status structure, and changes in habitual activity patterns.He is presently a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Anthropology, UNM where he is conducting his dissertation research on the impacts of population aggregation on labor organization during the Rio Grande Classic Period.
Dr. David Phillips, "Casas Grandes Effigy Vessels: Portraits of Individuals? Individual Potters?
The pottery of the Casas Grandes culture of the Chihuahua appears to include portraits of individuals, and it is also possible to suggest that certain individuals specialized in the making of the portrait vessels. This hypothesis is far from proven; instead Dave Phillips presents it as an example of how archaeological theories begin. Dave Phillips is the Curator of Archaeology at the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico. Most of his field work has been done in New Mexico and Arizona but he has also worked elsewhere in the U.S. and in Chihuahua, Mexico. His currenf fieldwork focuses on the site of Pottery Mound.
Please Note: Dave Phillips has presented this lecture to other local organizations in the last year. No new or futher developments will be reported at this lecture.
Michael Kanteena, Artist, "Ancient Designs of my Ancestors, Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde and Mimbres"
Michael discusses the "Ancient Designs" used in a contemporary form. He makes actual reproductions of Chacoan, Mesa Verde and Mimbres pottery learned from prehistoric Meso-American Indian cultures. He will talk about the clay and discuss about the natural colors used on the pottery. Animal forms are occasionally based on Mimbres or old Laguna pieces. Some animals are translated into costumes of ancient Mimbres ceremonial dancers. The dancers are Michael's interpretation of how he believes they may have appeared 1,000 years ago. Pottery reproductions will be on display of the three Pueblos - Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and Mimbres.
Michael began developing his present work about 20 years ago after deciding to trace his peoples' roots through to the Chacoan Culture. His most recent works come from an interest in the common genetic and religious roots of the Keresan and Hopi peoples. The Hopi spirit figures were previously done in wood. However, Michael is rendering them anew in clay with colorful and interpretive forms.
He was named in the Southwest Art Magazine as one of the top 500 emerging Indianartists. He received the Wingspread Collectors Guild 1998 Award of Excellence and Judges' Choice at the Heard Museum Indian Artists' show. Michael also appears in "Pueblo Artists Portraits".
Ron C.D Fields, Petroglyph National Monument, "Central Rio Grande and Rio Puerco Spear and Atlatl Technologies"
Ron Fields has examined more than 500 dart mainshafts and more than 500 dart foreshafts from the University of New Mexico collections. Archaeological site LA 46316, excavated in 1949, has provided a wealth of information on the variability of dart types used, different manufacturing techniques, different decorations employed, as well as preferential use of paleoethnobotanical material. Many dart projectile point types are still in their original shafts.Although his analysis is strictly archaeological, he has also taken a spin back in history which he will share with us.He has interviewed three of the excavators and, with their help, has put together a sense of what it was like to be "on the crew" back in 1949 when many of the artifacts were recovered.
Ron is an archaeological field technician at Petroglyph National Monument. He has been involved in archaeology from the age of eight or nine when he discovered a stone ax while picking blackberries in Ohio.He has a Bachelors Degree in Anthropology and History.He has worked at both Sun Watch Archaeological Park and Mesa Verde.He has performed contract archaeology for TRC Mariah Associates and was an Environmental Scientist for the Public Service Company of New Mexico for 12 years.Ron is currently analyzing artifacts from UNM which will be discussed in his presentation.
Dr. Milford Fletcher
Using the latest technology of Global Positioning Units, high-speed computers, and digital cameras, volunteers from the Albuquerque Archeological Society have recorded several hundred petroglyphs in the vicinity of the historic Hagan coal-mining district north of the community of San Antonio.The data gathered have been computerized for visual comparisons and analysis and can now be compared to similar computerized databases such as Petroglyph National Monument and the large petroglyph site east of Pueblo Blanco in the Galisteo basin.Recorders have encountered life-sized deer, large shields and a variety of images that are unique to the area.
Dr. Milford Fletcher is retired from the National Park Service and was trained as animal ecologist.He has been a cultural resources consultant to the governments of India and France, and worked six months at the Nabatean city of Petra under contract with the Kingdom of Jordan.He has worked on a number of petroglyph recording projects, has published several papers on the subject, and has visited and studied rock art and wild caves in eight different countries.He is a frequent speaker in the rock art community.
Dr. Linda S. Cordell - "Imaging and Imagining Tijeras Pueblo"
Visitors to Tijeras Pueblo walk a path around, over and through a village that is covered over with earth and planted in grasses. The last major excavations at the site were in 1976. New maps of Tijeras Pueblo, digital images of the excavation and attached data sets now allow virtual visits and real research to take place.
Dr. Linda S. Cordell directed the UNM Field School excavations at Tijeras Pueblo from 1974 through 1976. She served as Professor and Chair of the Anthropology Department at the University of New Mexico and Professor of Anthropology and Director of the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History at the University of Colorado Boulder. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She currently lives in Santa Fe and works with the FOTP as a consultant for the new interpretive center at the site.
James L. Moore - Finding the Center Place: Indigenous Development, Population Movement, and Migration into the Northern Rio Grande
A hotly debated issue in Southwestern archaeology has long been the fate of the Pueblo inhabitants of the Mesa Verde region as they abandoned their homes near the end of the thirteenth century, never to return. Many archaeologists believe that most of these people moved directly to the Northern Rio Grande, becoming ancestral to many of the modern pueblo villages. Other archaeologists believe that the picture is not quite as clear. This talk will re-examine this issue from a Northern Rio Grande perspective using archaeological and ethnological information to suggest that the process of migration from the Mesa Verde region to the Northern Rio Grande is neither clear-cut nor certain, and will offer a different perspective on this phenomenon.
James L. Moore holds a B.A. from the University of Michigan (1974) and an M.A. from the University of New Mexico (1981). He has worked on numerous archaeological projects in New Mexico over the past 36 years, and for the last 22 years has been a Project Director for the Office of Archaeological Studies, Museum of New Mexico. His major interests are in prehistoric agriculture, population movement and migrations, chipped stone technology, and the economics of Spanish New Mexico.
Helen K. Crotty, Ph.D - The Three Rivers Petroglyph Site: A Candidate for the National Register of Historic Places
Helen's talk illustrates why the Three Rivers Site is worthy of National Register status by showing what makes it so special:the landscape setting, the topography of the petroglyph ridge, its relatively pristine condition, as well as its images.The talk illustrates some common geometric and life form images found there as well as elements that appear to be unique to the site. Helen Crotty holds B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in Art History from UCLA. Her doctorate was in Native American Arts and she wrote her dissertation on kiva mural art of the Pueblo IV period, AD 1300 to 1600. A change in major in 1977 led to the Rock Art Recording Field School of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico in Chaco Canyon.The Field School was located at the Three Rivers site for six seasons 1987-1992.After the first season, her late husband, Jay, assumed Directorship of the Field School, with Helen serving as assistant.Jay headed the Field School until 1994: the last two seasons at the Wells Petroglyph Preserve near Velarde. They later directed the ASNM Rock Art Project at Creston (Comanche Gap) and assisted with the recording of Petroglyph National Monument. The Crottys received awards for their work with the Three Rivers Field School and at Petroglyph Monument from the American Rock Art Research Association, the Historic Preservation Division, the Archaeological Society of New Mexico and the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society. Helen has published several articles on rock art and the rock art field school at Three Rivers as well as on kiva murals. While president of the American Rock Art Research Association, she organized a symposium and edited a publication on rock art conservation and protection.She is currently working with friends to prepare a nomination of the Three Rivers Petroglyph Site to the National Register of Historic Places.
Robert Dello-Russo, PhD., Deputy Director/Office of Archaeological Studies,Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, NM -- Did Paleoindians Occupy Lemitar Rock Shelter: The Chronology and GeoArchaeology of a Deeply Stratified Site in Socorro County, NM
Our understanding of the Paleoindian period in west-central New Mexico has benefitted greatly from an upswing in regional research over the last decade. Yet, Paleoindian research here is still in a formative stage and clearly in need of stratified deposits with which to refine our understanding of regional Paleoindian chronologies and lifeways. The results of recent archaeological research at the Lemitar Shelter site have demonstrated the presence of stratigraphically intact deposits that are at least 4.25 m deep and which contain charcoal samples dating to the late Paleoindian period (ca. cal 8800 BP or almost 7000 BC). But the lack of associated artifacts or cultural features, and the effects of regional landscape development during the early Holocene, leave open the possibility that the dated charcoal samples did not have a cultural origin. A review of the history of archaeology at Lemitar Shelter sheds light on these apparent problems.
Dr. Dello-Russo received his MA and Ph.D. in Anthropology (1990, 1999) from University of New Mexico; Professional cadastral surveyor for BLM in Colorado & Montana 1977- 1984; active in archaeology since 1985 and in the Southwest since 1987; Owned & directed CRM firm Escondida Research Group, LLC in NM 1993-2002 then co-owned & co-directed in NM & CO 2002-present; Created and managed cultural resource compliance program for NM Department of Game & Fish 2005-2007; joined the Museum of New Mexico in 2007 as Deputy Director for Office of Archaeological Studies.His expertise is in lithic technology and lithic sourcing studies using X-ray fluorescence, paleoenvironmental research, geoarchaeology, rockshelter archaeology, early maize in the Southwest, and Paleoindian & Archaic hunter-gatherers. _____________________________________
Todd Brown, Miner/Owner, Casa Grande Trading Post, Cerrillos Turquoise Mining Museum, spoke on The Little Chalchihuitl: Best Turquoise Mine in the Cerrillos Mining District of NM
During a NM snowstorm, Todd took the long way around the Grand Central Mountainwas to his home in the Cerrillos Mining District..He came across a vein of brilliant green turquoise and decided to stop and chip off some of the stone. After working it for some time he got about 2 lbs of rough, natural turquoise before covering the vein and heading for home. Thirty five years later, still dreaming of the green color turquoise he had found that day, he decided to file for a mining claim with the Bureau of Land Management. Todd now produces the turquoise into cabachons and settings in sterling silver.
Todd Brown has been a resident of Cerrillos, New Mexico for the past 39 years.He is a self-taught miner and the owner of the Casa Grande Trading Post, Cerrillos Petting Zoo and the Cerrillos Turquoise Mining Museum in the Village of Cerrillos. He also is very busy as the Cerrillos Hills Park Manager and the Ortiz Preserve Manager.He is on the Cerrillos Water Board and was the founder of the Cerrillos Historical Society.
-------------------------------------------------- Regge N. Wiseman, Office of Archaeological Studies, Department of Cultural Afairs, Museum of NM Sitio Creston and the PreHistory of NorthEastern New Mexico and SouthEastern Colorado
The prehistory of eastern New Mexico differs significantly from that of the Rio Grande basin; even though the two regions are only sepatated by the Sangre de Cristo mountains. While most New Mexico archaeologists assume that the archaeologies of the two regions are closely linked, this appears not to be the case. More recent research, coupled with a broader perspective that brings in knowledge of Plains archaeology, is now balancing our view in a much more realistic way.
Regge Wiseman was born and raised in Roswell where he first developed an interest in archaeology. He was educated at the University of New Mexico and Arizona State University. Although retired from the Office of Archaeological Studies at the Museum of New Mexico in January 2000, he recently went back on payroll to complete the laboratory and report-writing phases of an archaeological project east of Carlsbad. The archaeological site of Sitio Creston (tonight's topic) was excavated in the fall of 1972, prior to the construction of Interstate Highway 12 near Las Vegas.